Month: January 2017

Tech Terms: Docker Datacenter

Docker Datacenter (DDC) is a container management and deployment services project from Docker developed to help enterprises get up to speed with their own Docker-ready platforms. Docker describes its Docker Datacenter tool as “an integrated, end-to-end platform for agile application development and management at any scale.”

In real-world terms, Docker Datacenter serves as “a sort of container-as-a-service (CaaS) setup within a company, where IT departments can build and store Docker images, code jockeys can build and test applications in containers on their laptops or desktop machines, and administrators can zip them over to servers in the corporate data center — or on virtual machines in the cloud — to put them into production,” according to ServerWatch.

Docker Datacenter Combines Proprietary Tools and Open Source Container Projects

As is the case with CoreOS’s Tectonic container management platform, Docker Datacenter comprises both proprietary software and various open source projects. The proprietary components in Docker Datacenter include Docker Universal Control Plane (UCP) and Docker Trusted Registry (DTR), which support Docker Engine as well as embedded open source Docker projects such as Swarm, Content Trust and Networking.

Docker first released Docker Datacenter into General Availability in February 2016, and it released a new version of Docker Datacenter in May of the same year. Among other capabilities and new features, the May 2016 DDC release also packaged updated versions of Universal Control Plane 1.1 (UCP), Docker Trusted Registry 2.0 (DTR), Docker Engine 1.11, Swarm 1.2 and Compose 1.7.

Source

Tech Terms: Intranet

An intranet is a private network based on TCP/IP protocols, belonging to an organization, usually a corporation, accessible only by the organization’s members, employees, or others with authorization. An intranet’s websites and software applications look and act just like any others, but the firewall surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access and use.

How Intranets Are Used

Like the Internet itself, intranets are used to share information. Secure intranets are now the fastest-growing segment of the Internet because they are much less expensive to build and manage than private networks based on proprietary protocols.

The Difference Between an Intranet, Internet and Extranet

An intranet is designed to allow a company to share information and resources with others in the company, for group projects and teleconferencing. This is in contrast to the Internet, which is public access.

When a company allows access to any part of its intranet, for example, parts are accessible to customers or suppliers outside the company, it is called an extranet. Outsiders are granted access to the extranet part of the company’s intranet with a valid username and password, which determines which parts of the extranet can be viewed.

Intranet Applications

Intranet applications are basically software that is used on the intranet. Most applications are similar to Internet applications such as browsers, instant messengers, and document publishing software. Unlike Internet applications, however, intranet applications reside on the local server.

Tech Terms: Unix

(Pronounced yoo-niks) UNIX is a popular multi-user, multitasking operating system (OS) developed at Bell Labs in the early 1970s. Created by just a handful of programmers, UNIX was designed to be a small, flexible system used exclusively by programmers.

Due to its portability, flexibility, and power, UNIX has become a leading operating system for workstations. Historically, it has been less popular in the personal computer market.

UNIX History
UNIX was one of the first operating systems to be written in a high-level programming language, namely C. This meant that it could be installed on virtually any computer for which a C compiler existed. This natural portability combined with its low price made it a popular choice among universities. It was inexpensive because antitrust regulations prohibited Bell Labs from marketing it as a full-scale product.

Bell Labs distributed the operating system in its source language form, so anyone who obtained a copy could modify and customize it for his own purposes. By the end of the 1970s, dozens of different versions of UNIX were running at various sites. After its breakup in 1982, AT&T began to market UNIX in earnest. It also began the long and difficult process of defining a standard version of UNIX.

The UNIX Standard, Trademark
Today, the trademarked “UNIX” and the “Single UNIX Specification” interface are owned by The Open Group. An operating system that is certified by The Open Group to use the UNIX trademark conforms to the Single UNIX Specification. The latest version of the certification standard is UNIX V7, aligned with the Single UNIX Specification Version 4, 2013 Edition.
According to The Open Group’s Web site, “As the owner of the UNIX trademark, The Open Group has separated the UNIX trademark from any actual code stream itself, thus allowing multiple implementations. Since the introduction of the Single UNIX Specification, there has been a single, open, consensus specification that defines the requirements for a conformant UNIX system. There is also a mark, or brand, that is used to identify those products that have been certified as conforming to the Single UNIX Specification, initially UNIX 93, followed subsequently by UNIX 95, UNIX 98 and now UNIX 03. Both the specification and the UNIX trade mark are managed and held in trust for the industry by The Open Group.”

Basic UNIX Commands
Examples of the basic UNIX commands include the following:

  • ls (Lists files)
  • ls -l (Lists files in long format)
  • cd name (Change directory)
  • cd .. (Go to directory above current)
  • cp filename1 filename2 (Copies a file)
  • chmod options filename (Change the read, write, and execute permissions on your files)
  • mkdir name (Creates a directory)

Note: Not all commands are part of UNIX itself and may not work on all UNIX machines. This page lists more UNIX commands and sources of information.

Tech Terms: Boolean Search

Boolean search is a type of search allowing users to combine keywords with operators (or modifiers) such as AND, NOT and OR to further produce more relevant results. For example, a Boolean search could be “hotel” AND “New York”. This would limit the search results to only those documents containing the two keywords.
Example Boolean Search Terms

The following example describe the different Boolean search operators. Note that AND, NOT and OR will generally need to be in capital letters when used as a search operator.

Quotes: Use quotes to search for an exact phrase. Example: “network administrator”

Parenthesis: Combine modifiers to create a more complex search. Example: network AND (administrator OR architect)

AND: Include two search terms. Example network AND administrator

OR: Broaden your search with multiple terms. Example: “network administrator” OR “network manager”

NOT: Use to exclude a specific term. Example: administrator NOT manager

Google Boolean Search

Basic Boolean search commands (quotes, AND and OR) are supported in Google search, however Google defaults to AND searches automatically, so you don’t need to enter AND into the search box. Google search uses additional symbols and words to refine searches such as “site:” to search a specific site or domain or use $ in front of a number to search for a price.

Tech Terms: Web Cookies

A cookie is a message given to a web browser by a web server. The browser stores the message in a text file. The message is then sent back to the server each time the browser requests a page from the server.

Other Names
Cookies may also be called a web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie or HTTP cookie.

What do Web Cookies Do?
The main purpose of a cookie is to identify users and possibly prepare customized web pages for them. When you enter a website using cookies, you may be asked to fill out a form providing such information as your name and interests. This information is packaged into a cookie and sent to your browser which stores it for later use. The next time you go to the same website, your browser will send the cookie to the server. The server can use this information to present you with custom pages. For example, instead of seeing a generic welcome page you might see a page that welcomes you by name or shows when you last visited the site.

Information Obtained by Cookies
A cookie will typically contain a string of text with information about the browser. Some websites do use cookies to store more personal information about you, however, this can be done only if you provide that personal information. Legitimate websites will encrypt personal information stored in the cookie to prevent unauthorized usage by another party with access to your cookie folder.
Cookies have parameters that can be passed to them:

  • The name of the cookie.
  • The value of the cookie.
  • The expiration date of the cookie: this determines how long the cookie will remain active in your browser.
  • The path the cookie is valid for. Web pages outside of that path cannot use the cookie.

The domain the cookie is valid for. This makes the cookie accessible to pages on any of the servers in a domain.
The need for a secure connection: this indicates that the cookie can only be used under a secure server condition.

UNIX Magic Cookies
The name cookie derives from UNIX objects called magic cookies. These are tokens that are attached to a user or program and change depending on the areas entered by the user or program.

Tech Terms: Chrome

Chrome is the name of the Web browser developed by Google Inc., that appeals to many users as it combines a minimal design with sophisticated technology to make the Web faster, safer and easier to browse. Google Chrome was first released in September, 2008, for Windows, and later ported to Mac, Linux, iOS and Android devices.

Google Chrome Browser Features

Since the first release, one main feature of the browser has been speed. Chrome offers a number of features such as instant search, the omnibox (one box to search and navigate), auto-fill to complete forms, saved password retrieval, and Google account sign-in to instantly access recent tabs and searches across all your devices. Other features include access to favorite pages instantly with thumbnails, desktop shortcuts to launch Web applications, and independently run tabs within the browser to prevent browser crashing.

Integration with Google Apps

By signing in when you use Google Chrome, personal searches, themes, favorites and history will sync across all your devices and sync with other Google apps. Anything you update on one device instantly updates everywhere else. You can also add Google Apps to one device (YouTube, Gmail, Calendar and so on) to access the app and your specific account and settings on all your devices.

Chrome’s Incognito Mode

Chrome incognito mode is a way to browse the Web with privacy. Any page viewed in incognito won’t remain in your browser’s history, cookie store, or search history after the incognito tab has been closed. From settings choose New incognito window (Ctrl+Shift+N) to start browsing the Web in this mode.

Google Chrome Extensions

In the Google Chrome Web Store you can download browser extensions to enhance your Chrome experience. Simply download and install extensions for themes, apps, shopping, security, photos, browsing enhancements and more.

Tech Terms: Network Management

Network management refers to the broad subject of managing computer networks. There exists a wide variety of software and hardware products that help network system administrators manage a network. Network management covers a wide area, including:

  • Security: Ensuring that the network is protected from unauthorized users.
  • Performance: Eliminating bottlenecks in the network.
  • Reliability: Making sure the network is available to users and responding to hardware and software malfunctions.

For assistance with your network management contact Zerofail Southeast, info@zerofailse.com. Your IT Concierge. 

Tech Terms: Network

1. (n.) A network is defined as a group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer networks, including the following:

  • local-area networks (LANs): The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building).
  • wide-area networks (WANs): The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.
  • campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base.
  • metropolitan-area networks MANs): A data network designed for a town or city.
  • home-area networks (HANs): A network contained within a user’s home that connects a person’s digital devices.

Network Characteristics

In addition to these types, the following characteristics are also used to categorize different types of networks:

  • topology : The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring. See the Network topology diagrams in the Quick Reference section of Webopedia.
  • protocol : The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet. Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM token-ring network .
  • architecture : Networks can be broadly classified as using either a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture.

Computers on a network are sometimes called nodes. Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network are called servers.

Source: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/N/network.html

Tech Terms: Key Fob

A fob, commonly called a key fob, is a small security hardware device with built-in authentication used to control and secure access to network services and data. The key fob displays a randomly generated access code, which changes periodically, usually every 30 to 60 seconds. A user first authenticates themselves on the key fob with a personal identification number (PIN), followed by the current code displayed on the device.

History of the Phrase

Key fob is also a word used to describe a key chain and several other similar items and devices. The word fob is believed to have originated from watch fobs, which existed as early as 1888. The fob refers to an ornament attached to a pocket-watch chain. Key chains, car starters, garage door openers, and keyless entry devices on hotel room doors are also called fobs.

Tech Terms: Server Virtualization

Server virtualization is the partitioning of a physical server into smaller virtual servers to help maximize your server resources. In server virtualization the resources of the server itself are hidden, or masked, from users, and software is used to divide the physical server into multiple virtual environments, called virtual or private servers. This is in contrast to dedicating one server to a single application or task.

Common Uses of Server Virtualization

One common usage of this technology is in Web servers. Using virtual Web servers is a popular way to provide low-cost Web hosting services. Instead of requiring a separate computer for each Web server, dozens of virtual servers can co-reside on the same computer.

Benefits of Server Virtualization

Server virtualization has many benefits. For example, it lets each virtual server run its own operating system and each virtual server can also be independently rebooted of one another. Server virtualization also reduces costs because less hardware is required so that alone saves a business money. Server virtualization also conserves space through consolidation as several machines can be consolidated into one server running multiple virtual environments. It also utilizes resources to the fullest so it can also save on operational costs (e.g. using a lower number of physical servers reduces hardware maintenance).

There are several ways to create a virtual server, including virtual machine, operating system-level virtualization, and paravirtual machine.