Without a physical Home button, Apple added a Home indicator at the bottom of the screen. The Home indicator is used for unlocking the device and for activating the app switcher. To activate the app switcher, you have to drag the opened app with your finger from the Home indicator to towards the right of the screen. Then you will see all of the opened apps lined up in order to switch between them easier.
MIS is short for management information system or management information services.
Management information system, or MIS, broadly refers to a computer-based system that provides managers with the tools to organize, evaluate and efficiently manage departments within an organization. In order to provide past, present and prediction information, a management information system can include software that helps in decision making, data resources such as databases, the hardware resources of a system, decision support systems, people management and project management applications, and any computerized processes that enable the department to run efficiently.
Management Information System Managers
The role of the management information system (MIS) manager is to focus on the organization’s information and technology systems. The MIS manager typically analyzes business problems and then designs and maintains computer applications to solve the organization’s problems.
Within companies and large organizations, the department responsible for computer systems is sometimes called the MIS department. Other names for MIS include information systems (IS) and information technology (IT).
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Organizations use two-tier enterprise resource planning (ERP) to run two integrated ERP systems simultaneously. One system, the legacy application, also called the the Tier-1 system, is typically deployed at the corporate level and the other is managed at the subsidiary level. Two-tier ERP software is often used by large corporations with multiple sites or by an organization that’s based in multiple geographic locations.
The Benefits of Two-Tier ERP
Two-tier ERP enables an organization to optimize regional back office processes at a site that operates under a business model that is separate from the main company. At some locations the ERP requires special considerations — including translations or regionalized business models — and organizations my look to maintain a legacy ERP at headquarters with two-tier ERP solutions to support specific needs at the subsidiary level that fully integrates with the corporate system.
Master data management is one of the biggest concerns for organizations deploying two tiers of ERP. There should be no duplication of effort between the two ERP systems. Consistency is required at the second tier to ensure the corporate first-tier ERP achieves a single source of information for financials, orders and other business.
When Do Organizations Use Two-Tier ERP?
Often a Two-tier ERP system is implemented when the legacy, Tier-1 system, becomes very large and costly to customize, maintain and upgrade or when mergers and acquisitions leave an organization with multiple ERP solutions that they are unable to consolidate to a single ERP system.
According to EnterpriseAppsToday, the following scenarios are common in organization that use two tiers of ERP:
- A business with a very specific local focus – single-site or multi-site within a single country or region.
- A business with operations geared strongly toward a specific industry that doesn’t feature strongly at corporate headquarters.
- A newly-acquired operation with a mismatch of multiple outdated, unsupported ERPs.
- A small subsidiary with no formal ERP in place.
- A small operation at the second-tier which doesn’t warrant the use of enterprise ERP software, but may be brought into the corporate fold as operations grow.
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Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is business process management software that allows an organization to use a system of integrated applications to manage the business and automate many back office functions related to technology, services and human resources.
ERP software typically integrates all facets of an operation — including product planning, development, manufacturing, sales and marketing — in a single database, application and user interface.
ERP is an Enterprise Application
ERP software is considered to be a type of enterprise application, that is software designed to be used by larger businesses and often requires dedicated teams to customize and analyze the data and to handle upgrades and deployment. In contrast, Small business ERP applications are lightweight business management software solutions, often customized for a specific business industry or vertical.
Today most organizations implement ERP systems to replace legacy software or to incorporate ERP applications because no system currently exists. In fact, a 2016 study by Panorama Consulting Solutions, LLC., indicates that organizations implement ERP for the following reasons:
- To replace out-of-date ERP software (49%)
- To replace homegrown systems (16%)
- To replace accounting software (15%)
- To replace other non-ERP systems / had no system (20%)
ERP Software Modules Explained
ERP software typically consists of multiple enterprise software modules that are individually purchased, based on what best meets the specific needs and technical capabilities of the organization. Each ERP module is focused on one area of business processes, such as product development or marketing.
Some of the most common ERP modules include those for product planning, material purchasing, inventory control, distribution, accounting, marketing, finance and HR. A business will typically use a combination of different modules to manage back-office activities and tasks including the following:
- Distribution process management
- Supply chain management
- Services knowledge base
- Configure prices
- Improve accuracy of financial data
- Facilitate better project planning
- Automate the employee life-cycle
- Standardize critical business procedures
- Reduce redundant tasks
- Assess business needs
- Accounting and financial applications
- Lower purchasing costs
- Manage human resources and payroll
As the ERP methodology has become more popular, software applications have emerged to help business managers implement ERP in to other business activities and may incorporate modules for CRM and business intelligence, presenting it as a single unified package.
The basic goal of using an enterprise resource planning system is to provide one central repository for all information that is shared by all the various ERP facets to improve the flow of data across the organization.
Enterprise ERP Trends
The ERP field can be slow to change, but the last couple of years have unleashed new technology trends which are fundamentally shifting the entire area. The following new and continuing computing trends have an impact on the growth of enterprise ERP software:
- Mobile ERP: Executives and employees want real-time access to information, regardless of where they are. It is expected that businesses will embrace mobile ERP for the reports, dashboards and to conduct key business processes.
- Cloud ERP: The cloud has been advancing steadily into the enterprise for some time, but many ERP users have been reluctant to place data cloud. Those reservations have gradually been evaporating, however, as the advantages of the cloud become apparent.
- Social ERP: There has been much hype around social media and how important —or not — it is to add to ERP systems. Certainly, vendors have been quick to seize the initiative, adding social media packages to their ERP systems with much fanfare. But some wonder if there is really much gain to be had by integrating social media with ERP.
- Two-tier ERP: Enterprises once attempted to build an all-encompassing ERP system to take care of every aspect of organizational systems. But some expensive failures have gradually brought about a change in strategy – adopting two tiers of ERP.
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Plus, it can even tell you which Wi-Fi network you’re connected to, make a quick call or open apps and websites with the minimum of effort.
Cloud CRM (or CRM cloud) means any customer relationship management (CRM) technology where the CRM software, CRM tools and the organization’s customer data resides in the cloud and is delivered to end-users via the Internet (see “cloud computing”).
Cloud CRM typically offers access to the application via Web-based tools (or Web browser) logins where the CRM system administrator has previously defined access levels across the organization. Employees can log in to the CRM system, simultaneously, from any Internet-enabled computer or device. Often, cloud CRM provide users with mobile apps to make it easier to use the CRM on smartphones and tablets.
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Customer relationship management (CRM) describes all aspects of sales, marketing and service-related interactions that a company has with its customers or potential customers. Both business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) companies often use CRM systems to track and manage communications through the Web, email telephone, mobile apps, chat, social media and marketing materials.
Information tracked in a CRM system might include contacts, sales leads, clients, demographic or firmographic data, sales history, technical support and service requests, and more. CRM systems can also automate many marketing, sales and support processes, helping companies provide a consistent experience to customers and prospects, while also lowering their costs.
Some CRM solutions also offer advanced analytics that offer suggested next steps for staff when dealing with a particular customer or contact. Business leaders can also use these analytics to measure the effectiveness of their current marketing, sales and support efforts and to optimize their various business processes.
The Customer Relationship Management Strategy
Customer relationship management is a business strategy that enables companies to improve in the following areas:
- Understanding existing customers’ needs
- Obtaining a 360-degree view of customers and prospects
- Retaining customers through better customer experience and loyalty programs
- Attracting new customers
- Winning new clients and contracts
- Increasing profitably
- Decreasing customer management costs
Today’s CRM Solutions
Many of today’s most popular CRM solutions are delivered as cloud-based solutions. Because they have Web-based interfaces, these tools allow sales teams to access customer and lead information from any device in any location at any time of day. These software as a service (SaaS) solutions tend to be more user-friendly than older CRM applications, and some include artificial intelligence or machine learning features that can help organizations make better business decisions and provide enhanced support and service to their customers.
The data captured by CRM solutions helps companies target the right prospects with the right products, offer better customer service, cross-sell and up-sell more effectively, close deals, retain current customers and better understand exactly who their customers are.
The Business Benefits of CRM Systems
The biggest benefit most businesses realize when moving to a CRM system comes directly from having all their business data stored and accessed from a single location. Before CRM systems became commonplace in the 1990s and 2000s, customer data was spread out over office productivity suite documents, email systems, mobile phone data and even paper note cards and Rolodex entries.
Storing all the data from all departments (e.g., sales, marketing, customer service and HR) in a central location gives management and employees immediate access to the most recent data when they need it. Departments can collaborate with ease, and CRM systems help organization to develop efficient automated processes to improve business processes.
Other benefits include a 360-degree view of all customer information, knowledge of what customers and the general market want, and integration with your existing applications to consolidate all business information.