IT Concierge

Tech Terms: Machine Language

NMachine language is the lowest-level programming language (except for computers that utilize programmable microcode). Machine languages are the only languages understood by computers.
Why Humans Don’t Use Machine Language
While easily understood by computers, machine languages are almost impossible for humans to use because they consist entirely of numbers. Programmers, therefore, use either a high-level programming language or an assembly language. An assembly language contains the same instructions as a machine language, but the instructions and variables have names instead of being just numbers.

Programs written in high-level languages are translated into assembly language or machine language by a compiler. Assembly language programs are translated into machine language by a program called an assembler.

Every CPU has its own unique machine language. Programs must be rewritten or recompiled, therefore, to run on different types of computers.

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Tech Terms: Public-Key Encryption

Public-key encryption is a cryptographic system that uses two keys — a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to the recipient of the message.

Example: When John wants to send a secure message to Jane, he uses Jane’s public key to encrypt the message. Jane then uses her private key to decrypt it.
An important element to the public key system is that the public and private keys are related in such a way that only the public key can be used to encrypt messages and only the corresponding private key can be used to decrypt them. Moreover, it is virtually impossible to deduce the private key if you know the public key.

Public-key systems, such as Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), are popular for transmitting information via the Internet. They are extremely secure and relatively simple to use. The only difficulty with public-key systems is that you need to know the recipient’s public key to encrypt a message for him or her. What’s needed, therefore, is a global registry of public keys, which is one of the promises of the new LDAP technology.

Public key cryptography was invented in 1976 by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. For this reason, it is sometime called Diffie-Hellman encryption. It is also called asymmetric encryption because it uses two keys instead of one key (symmetric encryption).

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Tech Terms: Behavioral Email Marketing

In email and online marketing, behavioral email marketing refers to the techniques, strategies and often the automated email systems used by marketers and online merchants to collect data about an email subscriber so they can target specific campaigns to that person based on their behavior.

Data about the user is collected in a database, which also integrates Web analytics and email data. When the marketer directs an email to the user, it is very relevant to that specific subscriber, based on the data collected and their most recent tracked behavior.

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Tips & Tricks: iPhone Automatically Dial Extensions

When you enter a phone number in Contacts, tap the Shift button showing plus sign, asterisk, and number symbol, then tap Pause one or more times and enter the extension number. iPhone waits two seconds for each pause before dialing the extension.

Tech Terms: CDN

CDN is short for content delivery network.
A content delivery network (CDN) is a system of distributed servers (network) that deliver pages and other Web content to a user, based on the geographic locations of the user, the origin of the webpage and the content delivery server.

This service is effective in speeding the delivery of content of websites with high traffic and websites that have global reach. The closer the CDN server is to the user geographically, the faster the content will be delivered to the user. CDNs also provide protection from large surges in traffic.

How CDNs Work
Servers nearest to the website visitor respond to the request. The content delivery network copies the pages of a website to a network of servers that are dispersed at geographically different locations, caching the contents of the page. When a user requests a webpage that is part of a content delivery network, the CDN will redirect the request from the originating site’s server to a server in the CDN that is closest to the user and deliver the cached content. CDNs will also communicate with the originating server to deliver any content that has not been previously cached.

The process of bouncing through CDNs is nearly transparent to the user. The only way a user would know if a CDN has been accessed is if the delivered URL is different than the URL that has been requested.

Many Businesses Use CDNs
When delivering large scale websites to a global audience, CDNs can reduce latency, accelerate site load times, reduce bandwidth consumption secure applications and even block data scrappers and other forms of spammers hitting your server.

Content delivery networks are used for B2B interactions and in serving content to consumers. Today, as more aspects of daily life move online, organizations use content delivery network to accelerate static content, dynamic content, mobile content, e-commerce transactions, video, voice, games and so on.

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